All posts by Sanjeev Sathe

An explorer of life, a small time writer, nearly ex- cricketer, and a salesman by profession. Intellectually Backward. :) Cricket and Reading is in his lifeblood.

From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 10

As we inch closer towards the end of the series, we get to see names that are more popular to my generation. In Part 10 of the series- From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England, we are talking none other than the Haryana Hurricane, the most complete Cricketer India has produced – Kapil Dev Nikhanj. It was as though, nature had created this specimen with the sole objective of making a cricketer.

Kapil Dev
Kapil Dev in his stride

During his playing days, Kapil was only second to Sir Garry Sobers in terms of excelling in all the departments of the game. I am sure that many would vociferously counter my claim, but there are solid reasons behind it. Kapil did play in the same era as Imran Khan, Sir Ian Botham, and Sir Richard Hadlee.

Imran was by far the best batsman of the three. Bowling prowess was nearly equal with all the four, but Imran and Botham were clumsy fielders, were unfit to play a good number of test matches in succession. Hadlee’s batting performances were extremely sporadic in nature. Besides, Hadlee chose to miss series in the subcontinent a lot too, where his bowling would not have been as effective. But Kapil was always a free-flowing batsman, a wicket-taking bowler, and one of the best fielders the game has ever seen. And this was throughout his career.

The 1986 squad Kapil led to England was in an upbeat mindset. India had lost badly to England in the home series in 1984-85. They had bounced back and recovered well enough to win the Benson and Hedges World championship in 1985. In the 1984-85 series, India had discovered an artist who could match Gundappa Vishwanath stroke for stroke and had a voracious appetite for runs, in Md. Azharuddin.
Besides, the team had the colossal Sunil Gavaskar. Also had the ever-reliable Lord of Lord’s Dilip Vengsarkar, the man for the crises in Mohinder Amarnath, and the medium pace attack spearheaded by the captain himself, along with Roger Binny, Chetan Sharma, and Manoj Prabhakar. Ravi Shastri, Shivlal Yadav, and Maninder Singh could be entrusted the job of spin bowling.

India had broken the Lords Jinx strongly by winning the 1983 Prudential World cup, and the man in charge then was the man in charge now. And he didn’t have any notions of doing anything different this time around too.

In the first test at Lord’s Kapil won the toss and put England in. Gooch and Robinson made a solid start adding 66 runs for the first wicket, but the fall of Robinson’s wicket triggered a mini-collapse, and England were suddenly 98 for 4. At this juncture, Gooch found an able ally in Derek Pringle, and by the time Gooch fell making a fine 114, the two had taken the score to 245. Pringle too fell for 63 24 runs later, and the rest didn’t contribute much. England All-out for 294. Chetan Sharma (5 for 64 and Binny Sr. 3 for 55) were the destroyers in chief.

The Indian reply was wobbly to start with, Krish Shrikkanth fell when the score was 31, but the two senior pros, Gavaskar and Mohinder Amarnath held the fort and saw the day off taking the score to 83 without any further damages. Gavaskar fell early on the third day with his individual score on 34 and Jimmy Amarnath was joined by the Lord of the Lord’s, Dilip Vengsarkar.

At that point in time, Vengsarkar was the best batsman in the world, and at the top of the PWH rankings. And he did bat like the best. He had crucial partnerships of 71 apiece with Mohinder Amarnath and Azharuddin, and 49 with debutante Kiran More. He also had a last wicket partnership of 38 with Maninder Singh in which Maninder’s share was only 6 runs. Vengsarkar remained unbeaten on a superlative 126, and India had taken a smallish, but crucial lead of 47 runs.

England did an India of the past tours and was skittled for 180 in the second innings, Kapil taking four wickets and Maninder bagging a superb return of three wickets for only 9 runs. India had to get 134 to win, and there was ample time to get them. Yet they floundered, Gavaskar and Shrikkanth both falling when the score had just passed 30. Yet again Vengsarkar and Mohinder Amarnath had to do the rescue act.

Vengsarkar made a crucial 33, and Amarnath 8 in one and a half hour, but more importantly not losing his wicket. But both departed in quick succession with the score on 76 and 78, and then it fell on young Shastri and Azhar to steady the ship with a patient partnership of 32 runs.

When Azhar departed with the score on 110, the captain walked in in a no-nonsense mood. He finished the match in a matter of ten balls, scoring 23 with 4 fours and a towering six over midwicket off Phil Edmunds to finish the match. At last, INDIA HAD WON A TEST MATCH AT LORDS.

More joy was to come.

With the star of the first test: Chetan Sharma unfit, India had to summon the services of the golden oldie Madan Lal, who was then playing in the Lancashire league. India won the toss, elected to bat first, and with all the batsmen getting starts and making small contributions in the fashion of the piggy bank of a middle-class family, amounted to 272. Vengsarkar top scored with 61.

England never settled in their first innings. They folded up for 102, Binny taking five wickets, and SOS help Madam Lal taking 3. Out of the English batsmen, only Bill Athey scratched around for two and a quarter hour to score 34.

India batted again, started in a complacent fashion, and promptly lost their first five wickets by the time they reached 70. Yet again, it fell on “Colonel” Vengsarkar to steer the company to a safe position. He batted with the tail, and took the Indian second innings score to 237, thereby securing a total lead of 407 runs. In the process, Vengsarkar had scored his second century on the tour, again unbeaten, 102. With a daunting target of 408 runs to win, England batting again tumbled like ninepins.

Maninder Singh took 4 for 26, and England innings folded up at 128, giving India their biggest win in England, a win by 279 runs! And of course, Their first series victory in England. Tide seemed to be turning now, and the Colonials had beaten the old masters in their own backyard.

The third test was a dead rubber, as the series had already been decided. England won the toss, batted first and made 390. Mike Gatting made a dandy 183, Gower and Pringle made useful 40s. India matched the England first innings score in their first innings and after the completion of the first two innings of the match, both the teams were literally even Stevens. All the Indian batsmen pulled their weights, with Amarnath top-scoring with 79 and Azhar making 64.

England made 235 in their second innings, setting India 236 to win in 78 overs remaining. For some godforsaken reason, they chose to bat slow and could score only 174 for the loss of 5 wickets. The match was drawn, but the series won. Deservingly, Dilip Vengsarkar was named the player of the Series. He certainly knew what to do with the champagne magnum he received as his prize! 😊

The effect Kapil had on this series was mind-boggling. No centuries, no five-fors, yet he would take the crucial one or two wickets, make vital 20s and 30s at crunch situations. With him showing complete confidence in close friend Vengsarkar, who could bat freely and score heavily (Avg. 90) in the series.

He also backed his bowlers well, and all of them responded with wickets and tight bowling spells. Kapil was a man who could infect the team with his vibrant vitality and immense energy to bring out the best in them. It was the hallmark of Kapil Dev. Having had to train himself on the docile Indian pitches, grounds devoid of grass, this big-hearted man didn’t give up. Instead, he always gave his best.

He played the game wholeheartedly, always stretching himself beyond limits, and inspiring his teammates to do the same. No wonder, he was as complete a captain as the cricketer he was. He may not have been a shrewd strategist, but the brave knight, for whom his army would move mountains to win. Kapil Dev is certainly an Icon of Indian cricket.

Hope you liked- From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 10. Until then, stay tuned and keep reading www.shamsnwags.com

From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 9

And we move towards the 9th part of the series From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England, the days get ‘Sunny’. Sunil Gavaskar is the greatest opening batsman of all times. In 1982, he was the best batsman in Test Cricket. In 1981, playing under him, India had beaten Keith Fletcher’s England 1-0 in the home test series. On this high note, Sunil Gavaskar took the Indian team to England in the English summer of 1982. However, Gavaskar must not have been very happy with the side given to him. His trusted opening ally, Chetan Chauhan was mysteriously dropped by the selection committee like a hot potato, in spite of having performed admirably in the Australia- New Zealand tour of 1981.

Sunil Gavaskar in action
Sunil Gavaskar in action

Gavaskar was given Ghulam Parkar who had a questionable technique against quick bowling, and a young Pranab Roy, whose dad Pankaj had opened for India with reasonable success in the past. Rest of the batting line up was alright, and with the days of glory of the famous quartet of spinners over, the responsibility was on Dilip Doshi, Shivlal Yadav and young Ravi Shastri. Madan Lal and Randhir Singh were selected to assist India’s prime all-rounder Kapil Dev with the new ball. Syed Kirmani was the wicket-keeper. The England team too was fairly depleted; as Boycott, Gooch and a few other players had earlier chosen to go on a tour to South Africa, and were banned from representing England at that time.

For the choice as the captain, there was no disputing of Gavaskar’s claims. He was by far the best equipped batsman to succeed in England, with his impregnable defensive technique, an ice cool temperament and immense powers of concentration. Besides, Sunny was never shy of giving it back to the Englishmen, as he showed before the first test at Lords. Earlier, when England had toured India in 1981-82, captain Keith Fletcher had objected to the standing of a few Indian umpires in test matches, and Gavaskar returned the favor by objecting to the appointment of David Constant to officiate in the Lord’s test. The TCCB gave in and Constant was replaced by Barry Meyer. Yet it was the first test of an England tour, and Indians kept the tradition alive by losing it.

England batted first and scored 433. The erratic Derek Randall scored 126 and Botham and Phil Edmunds scored 60s. Kapil Dev was the pick of Indian bowlers, taking 5 for 125. The fact that he bowled 43 overs out of the innings’ 148 would underline the pressure he would have to bear in the series, and the ineptitude of the other bowlers. Indian batting fell apart and they were skittled for 128, conceding a 305 run lead to England. Gavaskar (48) and Kapil (41) were only substantial contributions. India had no answer to the English seam attack. Botham took five for 46. England asked India to follow on.

When India was keeping the tradition of losing the first test in England alive, Dilip Vengsarkar was starting a new personal tradition of scoring centuries at Lord’s. He bettered his performance in 1979, and scored 157 runs in an innings which exuded courage and beauty. Yet, India was still 53 runs in arrears and half their side had fallen when Vengsarkar got out. In walked Nikhanj Kapil Dev. In those days, he knew only one way to bat. And he did just what he did the best. He scored a whirlwind 89 in only 55 balls, hitting 13 fours and 3 sixes, and took India 66 runs ahead of England. England got the required 67 runs to win losing three wickets, all of them to Kapil Dev. Though India had lost the test, Kapil Dev was named the player of the match for his all-round display. As is the English tradition, he got a magnum of champagne as a prize. Wonder what the teetotaler Kapil Dev would have done with that. 😊

The second test at Manchester turned out to be a nothing test, as rain washed out a major chunk of play, and not even two innings could be completed. England, batting first made 425, with both their openers crawling to their respective half centuries, then Botham coming and hitting 128 brutal runs, and Geoff miller unlucky to miss his hundred by two runs. Dilip Doshi took 6 wickets, Madan Lal 3 and Ravi Shastri 1. When India started their innings, they were quickly reduced to 25 for 3 by Derek Pringle and Bob Willis, and a collapse looked in the offing. However, Veteran Vishwanath (54) and night -watchman Syed Kirmani (58) steadied the ship and took India to 112.

Yashpal Sharma fell cheaply, and Sandeep Patil and Kapil Dev added 96, Kapil scoring 65 off 78 again in his characteristic fashion. Madan Lal added another 97 with Sandeep Patil, and Patil remained not out on 129. It was a memorable century for Sandeep Patil, as he hit Bob Willis for 6 fours in an over during the course of that innings. The skipper failed to make a big score, and with the entire fifth day of the match washed out, the match ended in a draw.

The third and the final test was played at the Oval, where in the last tour Gavaskar had nearly won the match for India, singlehandedly. However, there was no single-handed display by the captain this time. England batted first and posted a mammoth 594. Geoff Cook made an even 50, Allan Lamb 107, and Derek Randall 95. But the star of the innings was Ian Botham. He scored 208 off only 226 deliveries, hitting 19 fours and 4 sixes. It was entirely Botham’s day. Such was his luck, that he removed India’s most prized batsman when he was batting. A blistering cover drive off Doshi’s bowling hit towards Gavaskar, who was fielding at silly point with brutal force shattered Sunny’s shin. Gavaskar couldn’t take any further part in the match. He had single-handedly pulled India out of trouble on this ground in 1979 but had to leave the same ground in 1982 limping on a single leg.

In Gavaskar’s absence, Shastri and Vengsarkar opened the innings for India and though Vengsarkar fell early, Shastri, Vishwanath, Sandeep Patil all made half centuries, and Kirmani a typically gritty 43. Kapil Dev made a fiery 97 off only 93 deliveries, hitting 14 fours and 2 sixes. India replied with a formidable 410 in the first innings, and England had to bat again. They made 191/3 in their second innings, with Tavare making 75, and Gower and Lamb a brace of 45s. India were given an improbable target of 376 in 36 overs. This time India opened with Ravi Shastri and Suru Nayak. India made 111/3, out of which Gundappa Vishwanath made a sparkling 75. The match was drawn, and the series was lost 1-0.

Much has been written about Gavaskar as a player, as a person and about his game. Me trying to write on it would result in a mere repetition.But I would still like to make an observation.

Gavaskar versus England, in England is a curious case. He had all the wherewithal to succeed in the English conditions, in terms of technique, concentration, reflexes, and temperament, yet he couldn’t match his own high standards while playing England in England. Albeit, he played what he himself rates as his finest Innings (57 at Manchester in 1971), and arguably what the critics call his best innings (221 a The Oval in 1979) came in England, he only made 1152 of his overall 10122 runs in England. His average in England is a good 10 runs lower than his overall average of 41.12. He has scored only 2 out of his 34 hundreds in England (5.88%) where he played 16 out of his 125 tests (12.5%). Much that I am a fan of Sunil Manohar Gavaskar, I must concede that he was a failure in English conditions.

However, this fact doesn’t devalue his contribution to the Indian Cricket, both in terms of runs, and psychology. In a country which lacked self-respect during Sunny’s playing days, it was he who exemplified standing tall against the opposition and giving it back to the opposition when the opposition cricketers used to dish out sledges and abuses to the meek Indian cricketers, both on and off the field. Till this pocket-sized rookie appeared in the West Indian tour of 1971-72, Indian batsmen had a world-wide reputation of being scared of fast bowling. By the time Gavaskar retired, tail-ender Shastri had become a regular opener, and even the likes of Shivlal Yadav and Madan Lal had developed courage to get behind the line of the ball when express bowlers were bowling. This might appear insignificant to the fans who have watched majority of their cricket in the new millennium. In today’s days of sledge-hammer sized bats and rules favoring batsmen, the fast bowlers look hapless more often than not. But back in the 70s and 80s, quick bowlers from West Indies, England, Australia and Pakistan invariably induced the fear of death in the minds of the batsmen then. There were no helmets then, use of chest guards and thigh guards was considered unmanly, and batsmen had to purely rely on their technique, reflexes and concentration for their own physical safety.

Gavaskar was never injured while batting. It was not that he was not capable of exhilarating stroke play. He has shown it in the 1983 Delhi test against the west Indian attack of Marshall, Holding, Roberts and Daniel, and again in the following Ahmedabad test, and again in the 1987 world cup match against New Zealand. But, for his entire career the Indian batting was hinged to him, and unless Vishwanath, Vengsarkar, Mohinder Amarnath came up with their sporadic special performances, it was he who had had to hold the innings together. I dare say, that if he would have been allowed the luxury to bat more freely in his career, he would definitely have ended with 13,000 runs and 40 test centuries. But that was not to be, and Sunil Manohar Gavaskar was destined to carry the burden of Indian batting on his 5’5” frame for 12 of his 16 years in international cricket. And how admirably did he do it !

Hope you liked- From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 9.Until then, stay tuned and keep reading www.shamsnwags.com

From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 8

Moving on to part 8 of the series- From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England, its turn of the next Indian Skippers In England.
Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan has had the longest active cricket career. He debuted for Tamilnadu (Then Madras, as the team was called then) at the age of 18 in 1963. He represented the country in 57 Tests from 1965 to 1983, was captain in five Tests and the first two World Cup competitions, a manager who doubled as a coach on the tours of Australia in 1985-86 and West Indies in 1989, was secretary of the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association from 1986 to 1989, a national selector in 1991-92, a regular and respected columnist for newspapers and magazines for many years, expert commentator for television for innumerable Tests and one-day internationals, ICC match referee in the 90s, and ICC panel umpire from 1993 till 2004.

S. Venkataraghavan- Former Captain, Match Refree, Umpire.
S. Venkataraghavan- Former Captain, Match Refree, Umpire.

He was a very stingy off-spinner, miserly yet penetrative, could bat when the situation demanded, was a live-wire fielder even in his late 30s, and was an astute student of the game. Maybe his engineering education had imbibed a constant pursuit of perfection and precision in him, and he expected the same from his team-mates. This was good for a cricketer individually, but it made him a very grumpy and short-tempered captain. He was always the fittest player in the team, and as a captain, expected the entire team to match up to his very high fitness standards. The portly Prasanna, beer-loving Vishwanath, and the reluctant Vengsarkar were not exactly comfortable with this.

After the 1978 home series against West Indies, Sunil Gavaskar was mysteriously removed from Captaincy and Venkat was appointed the captain for the Prudential World cup 1979 and the subsequent test match series against England in England. Venkat had earlier captained India in the inaugural 1975 world cup too. Indian Performance in 1979 world cup was similar to that in the 1971 world cup. Disappointing. The Indian team just hadn’t matured to play one day cricket till then. In the test series that followed, India fared much better.

Of course, they started with the customary heavy-first-test-loss in Edgbaston. England scored 633 for 5, riding on two centuries of polarly opposite natures. Geoff Boycott’s 155 was painstaking for the batsman himself, and painful for the spectators to watch, and David Gower’s 200 not out was one of the most beautiful innings one could ever see, laced with 24 delightfully effortless 4s. A budding batsman called Graham Gooch made 83. All the five wickets to fall were taken by the 20-year-old Kapil Dev at the cost of 146 runs, and Ghavri, Venkatraghavan, and Chandrashekhar all ended up wicketless and conceding more than 100 runs. Barring Kapil Dev, the rest of the bowling attack was rendered impotent by the English wickets, and this sorry state of affairs prevailed for most of the series. Indian first innings was worth 297 (Gavaskar 61, Vishwanath 78), and England promptly imposed follow on. In their second essay, India could muster up 253, with only Gavaskar (68) Chauhan (56) and Vishwanath (51) resisting. India lost by an innings and 83 runs. Ian Botham took 5 for 70 and began a dream series for himself.

In the second test, the Lord’s wicket continued its angry spell on Indians. India were shot out for 96, and only Gavaskar (42) made a substantial score. Ian Botham took his second five-for (5/35). England made 419/9. Gower (82), Miller (62), Randall (57) and Bob Taylor (64) being the mainstays of batting. India was again staring at a huge Lords defeat, but the epic courageous display by the two most stylish Indian batsmen Vishwanath (112) and Vengsarkar (102) denied England the victory. These were the second and third hundreds scored at Lords by Indians after Vinoo Mankad had scored 184 27 years before. Gavaskar made 59. Gavaskar had made good scores in all the innings in the series so far, yet had failed to convert them into a big one. It might be an awesome display for an average player but was way below Sunny’s own lofty standards. He was the best opening batsman in the period and would deal in hundreds. However, the hundreds were just not coming. But it was a most honorable draw secured by Indians, nevertheless.

The third test began at Leeds, and Botham spanked a blistering 137 in 152 balls in England’s modest total of 270. India responded with 226 for 6 riding on Gavaskar’s one more non-hundred score of 78, Dilip Vengsarkar’s unbeaten 65 and Yashpal Sharma’s gritty 40. The match was very interestingly poised, and heavy rains washed out any possibility of further play.

India had to win at Oval in the fourth and final test to avoid losing the test series. Much was at stake. England elected to bat first and scored a respectable 305, Gooch and Peter Willey scored fifties. The captain, for once took 3 for 59, and Kapil Dev took 3. India, in reply, were all out for 202, only Vishwanath (62) and Yajurvendra Singh (43) offering resistance. India had conceded a lead of 103 runs in the must-win game. The probability of Indian victory now was next to nothing. England pounced on this and scored 334 more runs at the loss of eight wickets. Geoffery Boycott presented another insomniac’s delight by scoring 125 runs in 7 hours. David Bairstow (Jonny’s dad) scored 59. India was to score a small matter of 438 runs in four and a half sessions to win the match and square the series. What followed was an incredibly astonishing display of the greatness of one single man. Sunil Manohar Gavaskar.

India began their innings with an intention to bat out the four and a half sessions of the match to at least salvage a draw. That was the best they could do with their backs to the wall. By the end of the fourth day, India hadn’t lost a wicket and posted 76 on the board. Both Gavaskar (42) and his most trusted opening partner, Chetan Chauhan (32) off to a decent start. On the fifth and the final day, yours truly, an eight-year-old but fast succumbing to the beautiful addiction of cricket was following the commentary on radio BBC. To me then anything that Gavaskar did was divine and had to be imitated. The memory of listening to the commentary and with a bat in hand trying to essay the shots described is one of my most cherished memories.

Gavaskar and Chauhan stayed together till the scoreboard read 213, and Chauhan, sticking to his habit of missing out on 100s, got out on 80. Gavaskar was joined by Dilip Vengsarkar, and the two took the score to 366, 72 runs away from victory and Vengsarkar fell to Edmonds, scoring 52. Gavaskar was going strong at the other end. And here, Venkat made a tactical error which cost India the win, if not the match. He changed the batting order, suddenly sending Kapil Dev in the place of the in-form Vishwanath, who had top-scored in the first innings. Kapil Dev was immediately removed by Willey and had failed to score. Still no Vishwanath. Yashpal Sharma came in, and looked to hold on the other end, but consumed valuable time in scoring 19 of 47 minutes. In the meantime, Botham, Gavaskar’s closest friend, and fiercest foe was introduced in the attack, and as he warmed up, Gavaskar called for water. I feel this was a grave error Gavaskar made. His innings was always built on concentration, and the distraction of taking a drink in the innings at such a critical gesture proved fatal, and in Botham’s first over of the spell, Gavaskar on-drove a half-volley uppishly straight in the hands of David Gower at Mid-on. India 389-4.

Finally, Vishwanath walked in to replace his brother in law. He gave it his all, scored 15 off 13 balls, but fell to Willey. India 410-5. Yajurvendra Singh, the last of the recognized Indian batsmen, walked in and walked out, scoring a solitary run. The captain tried throwing his bat around but was run out for 6 made in 4 balls, India were tottering at 419 for 7. After 4 runs were scored, Yashpal, who was holding one end up fell trying to up the ante, and India were 423 for 8. All Ghavri and Bharat Reddy could then do was to play out the rest of the overs, ensuring that India doesn’t lose. Winning was out of the question; so close, yet so far. What would have been a heroic win and a feather in the cap of Venkat, turned out to be a disgrace for him. Venkat was unceremoniously removed from captaincy and replaced by Gavaskar. The pilot of the aircraft carrying the Indian team back to Bombay from England made this announcement in the plane. How inappropriate! But that’s the Indian Cricket fan-hood for you.

Yet Venkat wasn’t the one to easily give up. He persisted, made a comeback in 1982-83, played for that entire season, and retired from playing cricket, yet didn’t retire from cricket. His stints as an administrator, Match referee, and Umpire speak volumes about his commitment to the noble game. Venkat’s cricket credentials stretch over a period of 40 years ­. Has any other cricketer in the game anywhere in the world and at any time during the last 141 years of international cricket run up a resume even half as varied and impressive?

All this can be achieved only by a man who thinks deeply about the game, is passionate about it, and is able to analyze issues objectively. Venkat’s transition from player and captain to match referee and umpire was quite natural. As a player and then as captain, he was always interested in the cerebral aspects of the game, and he made a close and careful study of the laws. He was a sound leader not only tactically, but also technically. Indeed, in the days when he was captain, I frequently saw Venkat pull up the umpires on a point of law! With this background, his taking to full-time umpiring did not come as a surprise, but few would have expected him to emerge as one of the leading officials in the world.

But then, for Venkat, there are no half measures. His attitude has always been that anything worth doing is worth doing not just well but very well. Of course, the initial study of the laws and the interest in the technical aspects of the game did come in handy, but Venkat also brought the stamp of authority to a rather lackluster job. He had played the game at the highest level for many years and had led his country. No other umpire in the history of international cricket could boast of these credentials, leading players to respect Venkat’s decisions ­ something that today’s cricketers do not always do.

However, I haven’t seen any of the current cricketers caring to consult Venkat about anything. Strange. But our Cricketers are demigods. They need no Gurus.

But Venkat is still well and truly around, and accessible. It would only take the Indian cricketers to get rid of their IPL-inflated egos to reach out to this reservoir of immense cricketing knowledge and acumen. Hope the day arrives soon. Venkat is 73 now.

Hope you liked- From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 8. Until then, stay tuned and keep reading www.shamsnwags.com

From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 7

We are back after a small break. From Mansoor Ali Khan (Tiger) Pataudi in From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 6, we move on to the next captain- Ajit Wadekar a god’s gift to Indian Cricket. Wadekar was the precious possession Indian cricket chucked away with its brash arrogance. Sad that his story is all but summed up in these two sentences.

The Indian Cricket team left for England in 1971 with the most upbeat mindset, as compared to the Indian teams that had toured United Kingdom previously. Fresh from a series win over Gary Sobers’ mighty West Indians (albeit against a depleted bowling attack), India had batsmen who could score big and bat long periods overseas in Gavaskar and Sardesai, the artistry of Vishwanath was at their disposal, and with a string of bits and pieces allrounders in Abid Ali and Solkar, quality spinners in Chandrashekhar, Bedi, Prasanna and Venkatraghavan, an express bowler Govindraj and a Farrokh Engineer who can be called an ancestor to dashing wicketkeeper batsmen like Kaluwitharana, Adam Gilchrist, Brendon Mc Cullum and our own Mahendra Singh Dhoni.

Ajit Wadekar
Ajit Wadekar
Engineer, Bedi and Venkat had been playing county cricket regularly for 3 seasons from 1968, when the English board allowed overseas players to play for counties. More importantly, the squad never appeared to be complacent, because the English team had Boycott, Fletcher, Edrich, who were supreme batsmen, a world class all-rounder in Basil D’ Olivera, the world’s greatest wicketkeeper in the eccentric Alan Knott, who was no mean batsman, and a fierce bowling attack comprising of John Snow, Peter Lever, Norman Gifford, Dereck Underwood, and the captain Raymond Illingworth, a shrewd bowler, useful batsman, and the best cricket brain in business. It was going to be a closely fought series, and so it turned out to beThe background of Wadekar’s appointment is curious too. He was a moderately successful batsman before the 1971 tour of the West Indies with many other players in the team faring better than him, yet Vijay Merchant, the Chairman of the Selection Committee had vetoed his name in place of the charismatic MAK Pataudi. It was a bold decision and Merchant was criticized of favoring the fellow Bombayite Ajit Wadekar. However, the uproar had died down after the team recorded India’s first series victory in the West Indies. The unassuming “khadoos” attitude of Wadekar was needed to marshal the resources the team had, and Wadekar showed that he fit the job like a hand in the glove.

Wadekar grew up in the Mumbai maidans where even tennis ball cricket is played with only one motive. To win. He was aspiring to be an engineer, and a chance meeting in a BEST bus with Baloo Gupte made him into a cricketer. A languid graceful left-handed stroke-maker, Wadekar could stonewall equally effectively. He was a part of the Mumbai Squad who won the Ranji trophy 15 times on the trot from 1958 to 1971. He had played a pivotal role in India’s first overseas test win against New Zealand scoring 80 and 71 in the test. He captained India to their first overseas series win. Wadekar certainly knew how to win.

Out of the first eight matches against the county teams, India had won 5 out of which four were successive wins. The Morale was certainly puffed up, and the England team felt the heat in the first test at Lords. England’s first essay counted for 304 runs, the top scorer strangely, being their premier bowler John Snow (73). Bedi was the pick of the bowlers with four wickets. India fared only slightly better, mustering up 313 in their first Innings. The captain top-scored with 85, Vishwanath made a sparkling 68 and Solkar a dogged 67. England fared even worse in the second innings, and on a deteriorating pitch, they crumbled to 191 against Bedi, Venkat and Chandra. Only Edrich batted well for 62.

India were to chase 183 to win, which could have been their first test match win at the Lords. But the occasion had to wait for another fifteen years. Apart from a fighting 53 by the prodigal Sunil Gavaskar, there was no substantial resistance shown, and in the end Solkar and Venkatraghavan had to hang on by the skin of their teeth to ensure that the match was not lost. Rain came to the rescue too. When we think of this innings, it is a case of “what might have been…” Both Solkar and Venkatraghavan were no mugs with the bat and who knows, they might as well have scored the required 38 runs for the win. But the elusive win had to wait for a few more days. This was the first occasion where India had not lost the first test of a series in England against England.

But any pretense of complacency which might have creeped in due to the performance at Lords was quickly wiped out in the second test at Manchester. England were rocked by Abid Ali’s opening spell and stuttered at 4 for 25 yet posted 386 in the first innings riding on a captain’s knock of107 by Ray Illingworth and 78 by debutante John Jameson. With the Manchester pitch and weather known to have mood swings comparable to any self-obsessed film star, this was a mammoth total. India could make only 212 in reply and suffered a deficit of 174 runs. Gavaskar scored 57, which the little master himself rates as his best knock. Solkar made 50. No other batsman resisted the English attack. Peter Lever on his home ground broke the backbone of the Indian batting taking 5 wickets. In the second innings England rattled 245 for 3, Lackhurst making 101 and John Edrich 59. India were given a target of 420 runs to win. India batted for 27 overs scoring 65 for the loss of 3 wickets on the fourth day. The fifth day was washed out, and the match ended in a draw.

With two tests played in the series and each of the team having dominated one, Wadekar now started feeling the pressure of the over-expectant Indian public. His decisions of not including seamer Govindraj and Erapalli Prasanna (Whom Gary Sobers had rated to be the best off-spinner in the game) in the playing eleven was criticised. Wadekar had opted for Abid Ali owing to his ability to swing the cricket ball, and the portly Prasanna’s claims were outweighed by Venkat being better with the bat, a much fit and agile fielder and familiar with the English conditions.

Wadekar and India had much to prove in the final test at the Oval.The team had to utilize their vast reservoirs of resilience and be aggressive when the opportunity would present itself to grab it. And they did just that. Illingworth won the toss, England batted first and scored 355. Knott made 90, Jameson made 82, and Richard Hutton, justifying being the son of papa Len, made 81. Solkar’s medium pace brought 3 wickets and the rest were shared by Chandra, Bedi and Venkat. India replied with 284, Wadekar and Solkar making useful forties, and Sardesai and Engineer making 50s. India trailed by 71 runs.

England begin their second innings, and Jameson was run out with a freak throw from Chandra when the score was at 21. Wadekar called in Chandra to bowl. The medium pace of Abid and Solkar was largely proving ineffective, yet the ball was new, and hence Wadekar may have preferred Chandra’s fastish leg breaks (like Anil Kumble’s) over the finger spin of Bedi and Venkat. Chandra immediately obliged by castling the stumps of John Edrich and having Fletcher caught by Solkar, both not allowed to score. The wickets of D’Olivera, Knott, Hutton and Illingworth fell around Lackhurst, and eventually he too fell to Chandra scoring 33. Hutton and Snow threw their bats around and England barely managed to get to three figures, folding up for 101. Chandra’s 6 for 38 would be written in letters of gold in the history of Indian cricket, Venkat took two wickets, and Bedi had one.

India needed 173 to win. Doable, yet easier said than done. The ruthless professional Englishmen won’t give up easily. Snow bowled Gavaskar for a duck and fellow opener Mankad’s wicket followed quickly. Then the two Senior Pros, the “khadoosest” of Mumbai batsmen Sardesai and Captain Wadekar got together and took the score to 76, when Wadakar was run out for 45.

Jitters !!!

Then came the tiny Vishwanath to join the Burly Sardesai (Rajdeep’s papa) and the two added another 48 runs before Sardesai fell with the score at 124. India yet had to get 49 more, but Eknath Solkar, who had inevitably scored useful runs when the batting seemed wobbling on the tour, chose the most wrong moment to fail. He scratched around for 16 balls, scored a solitary run and was snared in the standard Underwood’s trap. Caught and bowled Underwood. In walked the Brylcream boy of Indian cricket, the debonair Farrokh Engineer. Along with Vishwanath, he took the score within 3 runs of victory, and Vishy fell for 33. In came Abid Ali, played 3 balls watchfully, smashed the fourth one for four, and won India the match and the series.
Wadekar’s Indians had tamed the English lions right in their den. Things were changing. Having beaten the West Indies and England, the best teams of the time in two successive series, Wadekar had turned the often written off Indian Cricket team to a fighting unit. A famous Victory bat was erected in Indore by fans to commemorate this victory. Wadekar was to repeat the feat in the following home series in 1972-3, when India beat England 2-1 in a five-match series.

With these two series wins under his belt, Wadekar again led the Indian team to England in 1974. However, things would be much different this time around. In order to accommodate two series in the season, against Pakistan and India, the English season was extended to August and India was to play it’s matches in one of the coldest and wettest English summer. Hardly cricketing conditions, yet the Englishmen were more adept at playing in these conditions. Old Pro Dilip Sardesai had retired. Wadekar had requested Tiger Pataudi to play, but he had declined.

England too were far from merry. They had been drubbed the previous summer by a resurgent West Indies and then outplayed in a return series in the Caribbean, from which they had emerged with an unlikely draw. What’s more, Mike Denness, appointed as England captain for that tour, was a far from unanimous choice and he had been under immense media pressure from day one.

The old custom of India losing first test on an England tour was restored as India lost to England by 113 runs. England batted first, made 328 for 9 (Fletcher 128) and declared their innings closed. In reply, India made 246, Gavaskar scoring a flawless 101 and Abid Ali made 71. England extended their 82 runs lead by a further 213 batting again( John Edrich 100), setting India 296 to win. Indian second innings was thrown into a disarray by England’s pace bowlers and they were all out for 182. Gavaskar made 58 and Vishwanath made 50, but it wasn’t enough.

Riding high, England scored 629 in the first innings of the second test at Lords. Dennis Amiss made 188, Captain Mike Denness made 118, Tony Greig 106 and John Edrich made 96. With Bedi tossing up the ball in a “no matter what” fashion, the English batsmen made merry. Bedi returned with 6 wickets, conceding a small matter of 226 runs. India replied with 302, Engineer making a swashbuckling 86, Vishwanath 52, and Gavaskar and Solkar getting useful 40s. India were asked to follow on and they followed on disastrously. They were shot out for 42 in 17 overs. Solkar (18 not out) was the top scorer. Wickets were shared by Chris Old (5) and Geoff Arnold (4). Bhagwat Chandrashekhar had injured his thumb and did not come in to bat in the second dig. Not that it would have made much of a difference.

Indian cricket had hit a new low. The summer of 1974 came to be known as the Summer of 42, a blot on the name of Indian Cricket. The team morale was shattered, and so was the unity. Defeats are orphans, Success has many fathers. The very people who had heaped praise on Wadekar, were now calling for his head. The Victory bat erected in Indore in 1971 was painted black and subsequently destroyed by angry fans. Wadekar was lonely. The footmarks of the earlier victories seemed to be washing away by waves of disaster. But he had to stand.

Off the field there was a lack of unity. The squad became involved in a public row when they were told they would not be admitted for arriving late at an Indian High Commission reception. Opener Sudhir Naik was arrested for shoplifting. The charge was then proved to be wrong. The team was in shambles, both on and off the field.

India began the third test at Birmingham on this background. They were put in to bat, and on the first ball of the match Gavaskar was removed by Geoff Arnold. India somehow tottered to 5 for 115, then Farrokh Engineer took over, scored 64 not out and India made 165 in the first innings. England replied with 459 for 2. Amiss made 79, Mike Denness helped himself to yet another 100, Fletcher made 51, and David (Bumble) Lloyd made 214. Bedi took 1 for 152 and Prasanna 1 for 101. India made 216 in the second innings. Sudhir Naik, putting the earlier humiliating incident behind him scored a valiant 77. Ashok Mankad made 43 and Engineer 33. India lost by an innings and 78 runs and took the series 3-0. The final nail was hammered into Wadekar’s coffin.

Wadekar was voraciously criticized by the Indian media, and promptly dumped by the selection committee headed by C D Gopinath. The most victorious captain of the Indian cricket team had no place in the Duleep and Irani trophy by the end of the season. The hurt Wadekar announced his retirement from all forms of cricket. He concentrated on his banking career and retired as a very high ranked officer from State bank of India. But he returned to his first love post retirement, and went on to coach the Indian team, and tried to instill discipline in the team successfully.

Despite the tragic end to his playing days, Wadekar will always be remembered as the Captain who taught Indian cricket team to win.

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From CK To VK. Indian Skippers In England- Part 6

In the latest part- From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 6, our story moves on to Mansoor Ali Khan (Tiger) Pataudi (The 9th Nawab of Pataudi)
After the 1959 debacle, India set out to play in England in 1967 and were granted only a 3-test series. Another prince was appointed to lead India, but this time none of his cricketing credentials were questioned. He had actually lived a heroic life even till then and had come up on the top. Like his father, he went to England for his education, earned the coveted Oxford Blue, broke all the batting records there (Including Jardine’s record of most runs scored for the University in a season which had lasted for 50 years, – A sweet revenge on the man who cut his father’s England career short when papa Pataudi Sr. was probably in the form of his life), made a name for himself with extremely attractive batting, lost an eye, yet made a come-back, debuted in tests for India one eyed, scored a fifty and a hundred in the first series, and in the next series, when Nari Contractor was appointed as the Indian Captain after a near-fatal injury was inflicted on Contractor by Charlie Griffith. And the rest as they say, “is history.”

From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 6
Mansoor Ali Khan (Tiger) Pataudi (The 9th Nawab of Pataudi)
Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi was only 26 in 1966-7 tour of England. There were all- rounders like Chandu Borde, and Rusi Surti, who had proven their mettle in the international arena, quality batsmen like Ajit Wadekar, Hanumant Singh (Who incidentally was a prince too- Of Banswara), Farrokh Engineer who was a great wicket-keeper too and three prodigal spinners in Bishan Bedi, Bhagwat Chandrashekhar and Erapalli Prasanna. The team was not a very strong one yet was not a bad team.

As in the first five tours, India lost the first test. But this six-wicket loss was not a display of ineptitude as were the first tests in the previous five tests. England piled up 550 in the first innings. Boycott scored an unbeaten 246 (& was dropped in the next test for selfish batting), Basil D’ Olivera scored a handsome 109, Barrington missed his hundred by 7 runs and Graveney scored 59. Indian bowling in this innings was dismal.

India replied with 164 in the first innings, Engineer making 42 and the captain 64, and were promptly asked to follow on. With 386 runs in arrears in their second essay, India lost make-shift opener Surti at the score of 5. Then the Bombay duo of Engineer and Wadekar put on 168 runs and India looked in a healthy position at 173 for 1. India then lost 3 quick wickets in the space of 53 runs and Hanumant Singh walked in to join his captain. The two put on 134 runs (which Steven Lynch certifies as the highest partnership in test cricket between 2 princes 😊). India avoided innings defeat and Tiger had made an assertive statement with his nonchalantly elegant batting. Here are a few glimpses of his innings.
Tiger rates this as the best innings of his life. England were set to get 125 to win and eventually got there losing four wickets.

The next test was at Lords, and the Indian agony at Lords continued. India made 152 in the first innings and Wadekar (57) was the only batsman to show some fight. England made 386, riding on a stylist 151 by a forty-year old Tom Graveney and 97 by Ken Barrington. Indian wickets in the second innings too fell in a heap, and India lost by an Innings. Tiger scored a brace of 5s in the match. Budhi Kunderan made 47 in the second innings. The series was lost.

England were relentless though. The third test was a dead rubber and England were tested, They made 298 in their first innings. John Murray made 77. India played four spinners and all of them shared wickets pretty much evenly. India replied with a Sorry 92, none of the batsmen making any contribution. England made 203 in the second innings and India were again set a huge target of 410 to win. They could make 277. Wadekar made 70 and Pataudi 47. India were whitewashed 3-0 in the series.

Yet, it was Tiger Pataudi who instilled self-belief in the Indian Cricketers. Instead of cribbing about India’s depleting fast bowling resources, he focussed on spin, and it was during his tenure that the great Indian Spinning Quartet became India’s most potent bowling force. He also made sure that his players rise beyond their regionalities and differences when they represented the nation.

Bishan Bedi once said, “He was our first captain who introduced a sense of Indianness in the dressing room. He’d say: ‘Look, we’re Indians first. We’re not playing for Karnataka or Delhi or Mumbai or Madras. We’re playing for India'”

And he was also the one with his feet always on the ground. He wore his royalty, fame and when he was stripped of these, he never cribbed. On the contrary, he was more comfortable without these. As a player, he was never shy of aggression and with his dry and occasionally wicked wit, Tiger Pataudi was one of the best conversationalists, in spite of being a man of few words.

Limelight was not new to him. His dad was a prince and a famous international cricketer, he married one of the most sought-after actresses of Bollywood, his son, daughters and daughter in law have been successful actors, and yet he maintained the dignity in his public life with a calm aloofness and a dry and honest wit. Tiger Pataudi was the first Indian Cricketer to overthrow the awe of the British from the minds of Indian cricketers.To conclude, I share this anecdote of his which pretty much sums up the kind of person he was.

Tiger had scored his maiden century against England in the 1961-2 series. He was keenly followed by the English right from his schooldays and they were pretty sad when he had lost his eye. The British press was wonderstruck with his comeback in tests, and he was asked, “When did you feel that you can make a comeback and play international cricket?”

“When I saw the English Bowling.” Pat came the reply.

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From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 5

From Part 4 of the Series- From CK to VK- Indian Skippers in England lets move on to Part 5. Datta Gaekwad at 89,is India’s oldest living international cricketer. Vijay Hazare debuted in the 1946 England tour and went to his next tour (1952) of England as a captain of the side. Datta Gaekwad debuted in the 1952 England tour for India and went to the next England tour (1959) as the captain of the side. Both Played for Baroda. And as far as the test match careers are concerned, there end the similarities. Hazare, between 1946 and 1952 had impressed in test cricket, scoring courageous runs both home and away.

Datta Gaekwad
Datta Gaekwad
Datta Gaekwad, however never established himself as a batsman at the international level. He was extremely prolific at the domestic level and had been a pillar for the Baroda middle order for a decade before this tour. An extremely disciplined man, he was chosen to lead the Indian side after Colonel Hemu Adhikari, who had led India in the preceding home series against the West Indies was mysteriously overlooked for selection.

It is said that Dattajirao was made captain due to his being a Gaekwad (the Royal family of Baroda), but much that the writer of this piece is baffled at the exclusion of Adhikari, I refuse to admit Dattajirao Gaekwad must have used any of the royal influences to become a captain. Having met the man, I can vouch for that. Gaekwad had made handsome runs in Ranji trophy for nearly a decade was probably the best batsman in the country at that time, and hence got the nod for he captaincy. He had led Baroda to Ranji Trophy title in 1958-59, and that must have been a factor in Making him the captain of the national side. Yet he disappointed.

Gaekwad had a reasonably talented bunch of players in his squad, but they were inexperienced. Out of the proven players, Manjrekar had gained weight as voraciously as he used to gather the runs and was a liability in the fielding set-up.

Umrigar took much time (until the fourth test when the fate of the series had already been sealed) to find form, and the lapses in the techniques of Contractor, Chandu Borde, Ramakant Desai and Bapu Nadkarni were inexperienced, and the captain himself was not in the greatest of batting forms. Wicketkeepers Nana Joshi and Naren Tamhane, though excellent with the larger gloves, contributed precious little with the smaller ones.

As is proved over past the past 138 years of test match cricket being in England, the team having the maximum capacity to stay on the crease comes up on the top, as once the swing and the seam movement is negated, runs can be easily scored. That precisely was lacking until England took an unassailable lead of 3-0 in the series, and then when some Indian batsmen started exhibiting some resolve at the crease, the series was already lost.

The first test followed the pattern of the first tests in the earlier four tours. England piled up 422, Captain Peter May made 106 and Godfrey Evans, Ken Barrington and Horton made half centuries. Subhash Gupte picked up 4 for 102 runs. India made 206 in the first knock, all their batsmen got starts and threw them away. Pankaj Roy made 54, Gaekwad 33. Made to follow on, they put up an even worse display, folding up for 157. Roy 49, Gaekwad 31. Fred Trueman and Brian Statham simply blew India away with their combination of pace, accuracy, swing and seam movement. Innings victory for England.

In the second test, Gaekwad, Borde and Nadkarni were injured, so Roy captained India. Contractor, hit by Statham, batted with a cracked rib but still made almost half of India’s first innings runs, with a determined 81. Greenhough took five for 35 as the last six wickets fell for just 24 runs. The Indian bowlers then hit back and reduced England to 80 for six, but Ken Barrington, with another 80, found unlikely batting allies in Statham and Moss, so England claimed a lead of 58.

Trueman dismissed Roy and Umrigar in the first over and though Manjrekar and Kripal Singh added 89 for the fifth wicket, the last six wickets fell this time for 34 and England required only 108, which an unbeaten 63 from Colin Cowdrey easily achieved.

In the third test at Leeds, England made six changes, bringing in a lot of their fringe players. Yet, India made only 161 in first innings and England piled on 483/8. Cowdrey made 160, Barrington, Pullar, and Parkhouse all made 70+, drowning India in torrent of runs. India, in the second innings, showed no fight and were all out for 149. Only Borde (41) and Umrigar (39) showed some resistance.

Again the scourges were Trueman and Statham, this time helped by the chucker Harold “Dusty” Rhodes who claimed 4 wickets in the first innings. At Manchester, India fought, but the rubber had already gone England’s way. India had roped in a handsome Oxford blue by the name of Abbas Ali Baig in the playing eleven.

England made 490 Pullar and MJK Smith made centuries, Barrington and Cowdrey made half centuries. Surendranath bowled valiantly to take the first five for of the series. Indian first innings amounted to only 208, Borde making a fighting 75. Yet, England batted again and declared their innings closed at 265/8, and setting India a monumental target of 548 runs to win. This time India tried to win.

Debutante 21 year old Abbas Ali baig became the third Indian batsman to score a century on debut, after Lala Amarnath and Deepak Shodhan. Polly Umrigar made 118, and at last Indians had started scoring centuries in the series. Contractor made 56. Yet India could score only 376 all out, and lost the test by 171 runs. Gaekwad didn’t play this test due to an injury, and India was skippered by Pankaj Roy.

In the last test of the tour, India batted poorly against Trueman and Statham and only a late partnership of 58 for the eighth wicket between Tamhane and Surendranath brought any comfort. The innings of 140 occupied five hours and 85.3 overs. England relied on a third wicket partnership of 169 between Raman Subba Row, who made 94, and MJK Smith (98), and then Illingworth and Swetman made maiden Test 50s in putting on 102 for the seventh wicket. England made 361 India’s second innings was more spirited than their first, with Nadkarni making 76 in four hours, yet they folded up for 194 and but the result was never in doubt.

Datta Gaekwad went on to play one more test for India. And played for Baroda for 5 more seasons. His son Anshuman represented India too, and with far greater success. An attractive stroke maker when he started, Anshuman Gaekwad was known for his heroic resistance against the West Indian Pace attack, and his batting in the 1976 Jamaica test is actually an interesting story, but that is for another day. Gaekwad lives in Baroda, with his son Anshuman and Grandson Shatrunjay, who all have played first cricket. He still keeps in touch with the game, and voices his strong opinions too, albeit now only at home. To quote a recent interview of his by Wisden,“Now there’s too much cricket. Everyday there is a match, whenever I switch on TV. I get fed up watching it,” he says, summing up world cricket’s problems in simple terms. “And somebody is doing this (reverse sweep), somebody is doing this (Dilscoop) – this is the sort of cricket going on.”

Thats all about Part 5 of series- From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England. Untill then, stay tuned and keep reading www.shamsnwags.com

From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 4

Vijay Samuel Merchant
Vijay Samuel Hazare
Vijay Samuel Hazare had a curious cricketing career. He burst on the Indian Cricket horizon in the 1933-34 season as a promising allrounder from the nondescript cusbah of Jat in the Sangli district of the Bombay presidency (now Maharashtra). Yet despite of his birth in such a remote place, he was coached by none other than Clarrie Grimmet, one of the best legspinners the world has ever seen, and a key member of Bradman’s Australian team. The Maharajah of the Jat state had arranged for Grimmet to come and teach his offspring’s cricket, and since there were players needed to make a complete eleven a young Vijay Samuel Hazare was drafted in to the coaching programme. Hazare then made the most of this godsend opportunity, and how! Hazare had the most unorthodox stance and technique, but since he seemed to be batting well inspite of it, Grimmet advised him to stick to it.

He scored tonnes and tonnes of runs in the pentangulars and the Ranji Trophy and hit the first of his many purple patches. He scored 1,423 runs. He made scores of 248, 59, 309, 101, 223 and 87, reaching 1,000 runs in only four matches. As soon as the second world war was over, he was drafted in the 1946 touring party to England. He had won his place in the squad by the sheer weight of runs scored. In tests there, he scored a few 30s and 40s, but no big scores came.

It was the 1947-48 tour of Australia when Vijay Hazare actually arrived in International cricket. He became the first Indian batsman to score two hundreds in a test match. His maiden hundred (116) came in the first innings of the Adelaide test and he quickly followed it up with 145 in the second innings. He wasn’t very easy on the eye to watch, but was extremely difficult to dislodge once he got his eye in. After the twin hundreds at Adelaide, Hazare become the man for the crisis for the Indian cricket team. He bowled handy medium pace, good enough to get twenty international wickets.

And with this reputation behind him, Vijay Samuel Hazare set out on his voyage to England, as the leader of the Indian team. Barring the last- minute conferring of captaincy to CK Naidu in 1932, Hazare was the first Indian captain to be chosen on pure merit. He had just three months ago guided India to their first test match win after 20 years of being granted test match status: against the same opponents, albeit at home. And for his performance, he did not disappoint, but the team did not keep up the expectations of the fans. India had played nine lead-up matches going into the first Test. They had lost one game, won another and drew the rest. Most of their frontline batsmen were in form, especially Polly Umrigar; and GS Ramchand and Ghulam Ahmed were outstanding with the ball. Morale was reasonably high.

But, they had to face fire right from the first session of the first test. England had included a 21-year-old Yorkshire rookie in their team and captain Hutton wasted no time in unleashing him on the Indians. Fiery Fred Truman reduced India to 52 for 3 in no time, sending back Datta Gaekwad, Bespectacled Pankaj Roy and Polly Umrigar back to pavilion in quick succession. The onus of constructing the innings fell on the lean shoulders of Vijay Hazare. He found an able allay in namesake Vijay Manjrekar, and both the Vijays added 222 runs for the fourth wicket. The rest of the batsmen did nothing better than merely recording their attendance at the crease, and India was all out for 293. England too started shakily and lost Hutton, Richardson and May by the time they had reached 62. But then Graveny, Evans, Watkins and Jenkins batted responsibly to give England a first innings lead of 40 runs.

Again Fred Truman wreaked havoc, reducing India to the infamous score of four wickets down without a single run scored.At 26, Umrigar got out. Again, Captain courageous came to rescue and with Dattu Phadkar, steered India to a somewhat respectable total of 165. Hazare made 56 and Phadkar made 64. England got the required 126 runs to win the match losing 3 wickets, and the tradition of India losing their first test of the series was kept intact.
India lost the second test at Lords too, but this time they put up a very good fight, courtesy Vinoo Mankad. A man for all situations, Mankad was made to open the innings and he responded by scoring a polished 72 at the top. Hazare made 69 and India were all out for 235. England made 537, riding on centuries from Hutton and Godfrey Evans, supported by half centuries by May, Graveny and Simpson. In a mammoth bowling effort, Mankad took 5 for 196 in 73 overs. India was 302 runs behind and staring at an innings defeat. But not for nothing is this test called “Mankad’s test”. Mankad again opened the innings and scored 184. Hazare made 49 and Gulabrai Ramchand 42 to take India to 378. England needed a small matter of 76 runs to win, which they got easily to take an unbeatable lead of 2-0 in the series.

The next test at Manchester was nothing to write home about for the Indians. England made 347 for 8 and declared their first innings closed. Hutton made 104, Evans and May made half centuries. India were bowled out for 58 and 82 in their two innings. Indians just couldn’t handle the pace of Truman and the swing of Bedser. Their both innings put together were finished under 58 overs. India was completely outplayed. Hazare scored a pair of 16s.
The last test at Oval looked destined for a similar fate as Manchester, but for the rain gods saving the visitors. England made 326 for 6 and India were all down for 98. Hazare top scored with 38.

Hazare didn’t play long after this series. He retired after a couple of years and became a very good cricket administrator. He had risen to great heights from the ground level and he had sympathy for cricketers coming from small towns. It was he who had drafted a young 21-year-old parsee from the then small town of Godhra in the Indian team, and that man grew to be the best captain of India till his time. This boy was called Nariman Contractor. Hazare then retired into seclusion in his Baroda home. His brother, son, nephews and grandson played first class cricket too.

Hazare left the crease of life scoring 89 years, and towards the end fought a valiant battle with a very hostile and wily bowler called Cancer of the intestine who eventually claimed his wicket.

Special thanks to Sanjeev Sathe, who is an avid cricket fan and a dear friend of ours for contributing this wonderful article

From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 3

Iftikhar Ali Khan (The 8th Nawab of Pataudi)
Iftikhar Ali Khan (The 8th Nawab of Pataudi)

After the 1936 tour of England, Indians hardly played any international cricket owing to the volatile situation around the world due to the second world war. With only 11 first class matches happening in the first Post War in 1945, the fans all over the world were thirsting for some quality cricket to watch.

India were invited to play a 3 test match series in England, and as usual, the selectors’ plotting and scheming started before selection of the squad and more importantly, it’s captain. The garland of captaincy landed on the shoulders of the 36 year old Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi, the 8th Nawab Of Pataudi, a small riyasat in Haryana. He had earlier represented England briefly with fair success, and with his experience of playing in English conditions (He played County Cricket for Oxford University and Worcestershire, in his college days and after that)

Another England tour, another prince as a captain, and India sailed to England to play the first international cricket series after the great war. But this was a much better prince. As compared to the viciously whimsical Vizzy, Pataudi (Sr.) was as suave, cultured and talented as they come. He was a fine gentleman, a well-educated one and above all, appeared disarmingly oblivious to his prince hood. He was liked a lot by his team mates. However, at the time, Pataudi (Sr.) was past his prime as a cricketer, and none of his fine qualities could avoid India’s series defeat and his own dismal performance on the tour. He did a lot to inspire his players, though.

Mushtaq Ali, in his autobiography “Cricket Delightful” states that Pataudi was to be appointed Indian captain several months ahead of the tour of England in 1936. The idea was that he could watch the players in the winter series against the visiting Australians Servicemen and a few other players led by Jack Ryder and pick the side he wanted. All these plans were rendered null and void when Pataudi withdrew in February claiming he was not fully fit. It was ten years later that he finally led an Indian team to England, when he was, a mere shadow of his best self as a cricketer and had played little first-class cricket in the preceding years.

Born as the eldest son of the 7th Nawab of Pataudi Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan and Shahar Bano Begum of Bhopal, on March 16, 1910, Pataudi (Sr.) was educated in Lahore, and later, in Oxford where he earned the coveted “blue” after a two- year apprenticeship, scoring 106 and 84 in a match against Cambridge University and saving the match for his team. Post that, the Nawab never looked back. He went on to pile up heavy scores for the University, and the 1931 season, he scored 1,307 runs for Oxford and finished with a batting average of 93, heading the Oxford averages. In the University Match that year, Alan Ratcliffe scored 201 for Cambridge, a new record. Pataudi declared that he would beat it and hit 238 not out on the very next day. This stood as a record for the University Matches until 2005. Pataudi qualified to play for Worcestershire in 1932 but played only three matches and scored just 65 runs in six innings. However, his slaughter of Tich Freeman with marvelous footwork during an innings of 165 for the Gentlemen at Lord’s in July 1932 brought him to the England selectors’ notice. He was selected as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1932. These performances earned him a passage to Australia to play the 1932-22 Ashes tests. He did not take long to impress. In the first test at the Sydney Cricket ground, coming in to bat with an ideal launching pad of 300 for 2, Pataudi (Sr.) didn’t let the advantage slip out of the hands of the English side. He scored a resolute 102 in five and a half hours, doggedly defying the Australian attack of Bill O’Reilly and Clarrie Grimmet, had a 123 run partnership with Herbert Sutcliffe and shepherded the tail to guide England to 524 against Australia’s first innings score of 360. He was the last batsman out in that innings and had followed Ranji’s footsteps in scoring a 100 in the debut test and doing it in the Ashes. And he had lived his only moment of glory in International Cricket.

But this fairy tale beginning ended abruptly. As mentioned in an earlier article of this series, the Bombay born England Skipper Douglas Jardine hated to lose, and would resort to any means, fair or unfair to achieve a victory. In the second innings of the Sydney test, Jardine adopted the notorious tactic of making the bowlers bowl at the bodies of the batsmen, thereby threatening them with injuries and making them fend at the ball awkwardly to the close in fielders who would gobble the catches up. A true sportsman, the Nawab disagreed with this, but kept mum in the English victory at Sydney. However, his reluctance for fielding in the close was not noticed by Jardine then. In the second test, Pataudi told Jardine that he would not play his cricket this way, and he wouldn’t be party to this blood shedding tactics of the England Captain. Jardine remarked, “Ah ! His Highness seems to be a conscious objector! You would never play for England again.”

Pataudi (Sr.) played no more tests in that series. However, it was Jardine who had to swallow his words an year later, when he was sacked from England Captaincy following the bodyline series, and His Highness earned a recall in the 1934 Old Trafford rest against Australia. However, Pataudi failed to perform in that test and never played for England again. His 3 test career with England was over.

The Nawab played little cricket thereafter, owing to a busy Royal Schedule and poor health.

Still, he was named captain for the 1946 series. Mushtaq Ali, in his autobiography says, “The late Nawab of Pataudi, a great cricketer in his own right, had done nothing to earn the captaincy for the 1946 tour in preference to Vijay Merchant.” The tour was a disaster, as the players couldn’t unite and the captain was much lost in himself and indifferent.

The team was fatigued after a busy home season and then playing unofficial test matches with the Allied forces teams, and the fatigue showed in all the test matches. There were 3 test matches and 33 first class fixtures played on the tour, and India fared well in the first class fixtures, winning 13, only 3 and drawing the rest. However the tests were a different cup of tea altogether.

In the first test at Lords, India won the toss, batted first and was skittled out for 200 with Alec Bedser taking 7 wickets on debut. Russi Modi made 57. India never really recovered as Joe Hardstaff’s 205 propelled England to 428. In their second salvo, India fared slightly better by making 275 largely due to fifties from Vinoo Mankad and Lala Amarnath. England made the required 48 runs to win in the second innings without losing a single wicket. The captain made 9 & 22 in the match.

At Manchester, in the second test, England made 294 in the first innings thanks to fifties from Hutton, Washbrook, Compton and Hammond. Amarnath took 5 for 96. India, despite Merchant (78) and Mushtaq Ali (46) adding 124 for the first wicket, folded up for 170. Bedser and Pollard broke the spine of Indian batting. In the second innings, England declared their innings closed at 153 for 5, Compton making 71 not out. India were to chase 278 for a win on an extremely wet wicket and they made no pretense of trying to win. All the batsmen tried to play out time, yet India lost 9 wickets. Bedser took his second seven-for of the series, yet Sohoni and Hindlekar hung on grimly till close of final day’s play and saved the match for India.

In the last test, Indian batting fared much better. Play didn’t begin until the tea time of the first day, but Merchant and Mushtaq Ali added 79 runs and kept their wickets intact in the two hours play that was possible. The partnership couldn’t blossom further with Mushtaq (52) getting out with the score on 94. However, the rest of the team played around Merchant who scored a chance-less 128 and India crossed 300 for the first time in the series. They made 331, and England had made 95 for the loss of 3 wickets when the rains drew a curtain on the match.This was Pataudi (Sr.)’s last cricket match.

The numbers don’t reflect the quality of cricket the Indian team played though. Syed Mushtaq Ali, who opened the batting for India in the series says, “Though India didn’t win a single test, but considering that the first test was won for England by practically one man, the second ending in a thrilling draw despite holdups and the third test being abandoned, ours was not too mean a performance.” He was right. India had tested the mettle of debutants Vinoo Mankad, Abdul Hafeez (who went on to captain Pakisan), Vijay Hazare, Rusi Modi and Sadu Shinde (He died young, but his Son in Law went on to head BCCI and the ICC), and they came through good for India in the future years. Stalwarts Merchant and Amarnath performed well too. And the captain, well past his prime kept encouraging his players and egging them on to improve.The state of Pataudi became part of the newly independent India in 1948.After Indian independence, he was employed in the Indian Foreign Office till the time of his death.
The 8th Nawab Iftikhar Ali Khan of Pataudi died on his son’s 10th birthday (January 5, 1952) aged 41. His son went on to represent India with great success and became arguably the best Indian captain of all times.

Special thanks to Sanjeev Sathe, who is an avid cricket fan and a dear friend of ours for contributing this wonderful article.

From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 2

Vijay Ananda Gajapathi Raju, Maharajkumar of Vizianagaram aka Vizzy
Vijay Ananda Gajapathi Raju, Maharajkumar of Vizianagaram aka Vizzy
Though one can write about C K Nayudu with awe and respect, the same is not true about the man captaining India on its 1936 England tour. It is said that the captain is always only as good as his team, but this man, though having a much balanced and talented team compared to the 1932 sojourn with the Colonial masters, he was not able to make good use of his players. On the contrary, in this tour it was the captain Lieutenant Colonel Vijay Ananda Gajapathi Raju, (Maharajkumar of Vizianagaram) aka Vizzy who was the chief detriment to his team’s performance.

There was an excellent ppening batting pair of Vijay Merchant and Syed Mushtaq Ali. The middle order boasted names like Syed Wazir Ali, C K Naidu and L P Jai. There were two world class allrounders in Amar Singh and Lala Amarnath and one of the best wicketkeeper in Dattaram Hindlekar. This was a formidable squad, yet it didn’t perform to it’s potential in England.

In the first test at Lords, England won the toss and put India in. India started well with Vijay merchant and Dattaram Hindlekar defying the new ball and putting on 62 runs for the first wicket. But after that, the batsmen went to the wicket to bat and batted as if they were very concerned about the scorers and thought that it was better if the scorers not be troubled by scoring runs. Here, the captain played a captain’s knock as well as his limited abilities would allow him and from 97 for 6, guided the Indian team to a somewhat respectable score of 147. Vizzy’s opposite number, Gubby Allen was the wrecker in chief, taking five wickets for a mere 35 runs.

India covered up their bad batting performance by responding well with the ball. Amar Singh took 6 wickets for 35, Nissar 3 for 36 and CK Naidu took one for 10. In spite of Maurice Leyland’s defiant 60, England were skittled for 134, giving India a slender lead of 13 runs. In the Indian second innings, Gubby Allen took his second five wicket haul of the match, Headley Verity claimed four wickets, and Indian innings folded up for 93, which was the first of the many subsequent spineless Indian batting performances at Lords.

England needed a mere 107 runs to win, which they easily got losing a solitary wicket of Mitchell and Harold Gimblett scoring 67. India had lost by 9 wickets. In the second test at Manchester, one of the most dazzlingly audacious performance of the Indian Cricket team was seen. In the first innings, nearly all the Indian batsmen got starts, but couldn’t convert them to big scores. India scored 203, with Syed Wazir Ali top-scoring with 42. England responded with a mammoth 571/8 declared, with the mighty Hammond making a handsome 167, and Stan Worthington, Joe Hardstaff Jr., Headley Verity and Walter Robbins getting half centuries. England plundered the Indian bowling, which looked toothless.

India went in to bat again, facing an innings defeat, and least would have anyone expected what happened after that. An ideal opening partnership, where one dashed and other blocked was made. The stoic Vijay Merchant scored 114 and the debonair flamboyant Mushtaq Ali scored a blistering 112. Mushtaq beat Merchant by minutes to score India’s maiden test match century overseas. His batting was superlative in that innings. The great Neville Cardus wrote,’ There was suppleness and a loose, easy grace which concealed power, as the feline silkiness conceals the strength of some jungle beauty of gleaming eyes and sharp fangs. At times his cricket was touched with genius and imagination.’ Cotar Ramaswamy scored 60, CK Nayudu scored 34, and Amar Singh a brisk 48 not out. India scored 390 for the loss of 5 wickets, and the match ended in a draw.

Vizzy remained not out and didn’t score a run. He presented Mushtaq with a gold watch. India needed inspiration from second innings of the second test, Indian batting considerably improved in the third test at Oval. The hosts, riding on Hammond’s double hundred and Worthington’s 128 scored 471/d in the first innings. Nissar took another five for, and India was again up against a mammoth total. Merchant and Mushtaq again started well, scoring 52 apiece and putting on 81 for the first wicket, but the rest of the batsmen contributed little precious and the Indian innings card showed only 222 runs.Allen immediately imposed the follow on, sensing an innings victory. But in the second innings, India defied the hosts well. Merchant, Naidu, Dilawar Hussein and Ramaswamy batted well and India made 312 in the innings. Naidu made 81, which was his top test score. Given a mere 64 runs to chase, England achieved victory losing only Arthur Fagg. Vizzy’s tour was over, and so was his international cricket career.

The 1936 tour to England was perhaps one of the most acrimonious in the history of Indian cricket. He was fickle-minded, and whimsical, and the dressing room atmosphere was always polluted with plots and schemes to ensure disunity in the players. A few of the occurrences masterminded by Vizzy will remain like eyesores on the canvas of Indian crickets.

Vizzy’s cricketing ability was much inferior to the likes of Lala Amarnath, Mushtaq Ali, Vijay Merchant, Nissar, Amar Singh and CK Nayudu, and he was tremendously jealous of these better players. He had Amarnath sent back for “disciplinary” reasons after humiliating him repeatedly and also had a feud with Nayudu. He asked Baqa Jilani to insult C K Naidu at breakfast and rewarded him with a place in the test 11. He had also famously asked Mushtaq Ali to run-out Vijay Merchant during the second Test in Manchester, but they went on to have a 203-run stand.Lieutenant Colonel Vijay Ananda Gajapathi Raju, Maharajkumar of Vizianagaram aka Vizzy was a prince, a scheming man, a bootlicker of the British Government and if he called himself a cricketer, was a very very ordinary one. He, however was extremely well connected, was filthy rich and had an ambition to lead India in test cricket.
To his credit though, Vizzy had made space for a cricket ground in his palace in Banaras, and invited international greats like Jack Hobbs, Herbert Sutcliffe, Leary Constantine to India, paying them handsome sums of money, and arranged for them to play in matches in various locations in India, thereby granting India a glimpse of their geniuses. He was also instrumental in the development of Syed Mushtaq Ali, Dilawar Hussein and Baqa Jilani. But his was nothing compared to the huge damage he caused to Indian Cricket. Vizzy died 26 days short of his 60th birthday in Banaras, in 1965.

Special thanks to Sanjeev Sathe, who is an avid cricket fan and a dear friend of ours for contributing this wonderful article.

From CK to VK. Indian Skippers in England- Part 1

And as has always been the case with Indian cricket since, selection immediately courted controversy. The Maharaja of Patiala, one of the richest patrons of Indian cricket, was first named captain He withdrew, and, then “Maharaja of Porbandar” Natwarsinhji Bhavsinhji was signed as the captain and Ghanshyam Sinhji of Limbdi as vice-captain. Maharaja of Porbandar was later dropped out for reasons of health and Ghanshyamsinhji took over the team just two weeks before the trip. But Ghanshyam Sinhji too suffered a back injury that ruled him out of the Test and just before the start of India’s Test match debut, C.K Nayudu- The First Indian Captain was appointed as the captain of the Indian team.

CK Nayudu
CK Nayudu

CK was 37 years old at the time and had experience of playing first class cricket for 16 years for the Hindus and Holkars’ (Indore) teams. A very hard hitting Right hand batsman and a wily offbreak bowler, Naidu was a respected figure in Indian Cricket purely due to his abilities, and not for merely being a blue-blooded prince. The other two Indian Princes at that time had chosen to represent England, and hence the loyalty of royalty towards India was always questionable. Ranji, Dulip and Nawab of Pataudi (Sr.) all played for England with great success, but never thought of representing India till then.
CK was idolised in India cricket those days, as VK is today.
CK regularly played first-class cricket till 1958 and then returned for one last time in 1963 at the age of 68. In 1923, the ruler of Holkar invited him to Indore and made him a Captain in his army for both the land and air troop. Later he was awarded the honor of a Colonel in Holkar’s Army.
In the England tour of 1932, CK was by far the best Indian Performer. He played in all the first-class matches, scoring 1,618 runs at an average of 40.45, including five centuries and a highest score of 162. In the 1933 edition of Wisden, Nayudu was selected as one of the five Cricketers of the Year for 1932.

Earlier in India, when Arthur Gilligan had brought the England eleven to India, Nayudu caught the eye of the cricket lovers worldwide with an innings of extraordinary flare and audacity. Walking in to bat with his team precariously placed, Nayudu responded by hitting 153 which includes eleven 6’s and thirteen 4’s out of 187 deliveries in just a little over hundred minutes for Hindus against A. E. R. Gilligan’s M.C.C. team in 1926-27 at Bombay. One of the sixes, in the ball of Bob Wyatt, he landed it on the roof of the Gymkhana. The MCC presented him with a silver bat in recognition of that innings.

Despite a painful hand injury received when fielding, Nayudu made the top score, 40, in the first innings of the first test where India debuted as a national cricket team. Nayudu was a taskmaster and a strict disciplinarian, yet he did a lot to instil self-belief in the Indian team, at a time when a whole lot of Indians considered themselves inferior to the British, and the remaining ones didn’t want to play against the British as they saw it as a dent to the freedom movement. A number of players, including Vijay Merchant, refused to participate because of unrest at home and in support of Mahatma Gandhi who had been arrested in January 1932.
The strict daddy of the 1932 Indian Squad was not the one to be bogged down by reputations. Just a week before the beginning of the test match the English opening pair of Percy Holmes and Herbert Sutcliffe had created a world record opening partnership of 555. Yet Naidu had enough confidence in Mohammad Nissar, the Indian pace spearhead. Nissar sent both the openers’ stumps cartwheeling with lethal in-swinging yorkers before England reached the 20s. Then Frank Wooley was run out by a cracking throw by Lall Singh from wide mid-on, and England were staring down the barrel at 19 for 3 before the first hour of the game had ended. Looked like England would fold up cheaply, but their captain, Douglas Jardine hated to lose. He formed crucial partnership with the formidable Wally Hammond (who scored 35) adding 82 runs, and then Leslie Ames and Walter Robbins added swift 63 runs in just half an hour to give England a respectable total of 259. Mohammad Nissar finished with India’s first five-for in test cricket. He took 5 for 93. Nayudu and Amar Singh took 2 wickets each.
Indian batting was a bit like Afghanistan’s in the recently concluded test. The top order got starts but couldn’t convert them to substantial scores. CK was hit on his forearm by a express delivery from Bill Voce, yet braved the pain to score 40 valiant runs and becoming the top scorer of India’s maiden test innings. Naoomal Jeoomal Makhija scored 33. India was skittled for 189.
Leading by 70 runs, England started their second innings, but this time Mohammad Jehangir Khan wreaked havoc. He took four wickets for 60 runs. Yet again Jardine (85 n.o.) stitched up a partnership of 89 with Eddie Paynter (54) and England declared their second innings closed at 275 for 8. India was to score 346 runs, if they were to win their first test match. Nissar took one wicket and Amar Singh two, while CK went wicketless.
India didn’t fare better than the first innings in their second knock too. They were all out for 187, with Vazir Ali (39) and Naoomal Jeoomal Makhija (25) offering some token resistance. CK got out cheaply for 10.

Nayudu went on to play 6 more tests for India and played a couple of memorable innings in the tests. He scored 67 in a partnership of 186 with Lala Amarnath when the Lala was scoring the first test match hundred for India at the Bombay Gymkhana. The match was also Lalajee’s debut test match. CK was the captain for this home series against England, but didn’t contribute with the bat or the ball apart from making that score of 67.
He also went to England with the 1936 team, where, after failing in the first two tests, and the first innings of the third test in the series, where the scheming Maharajkumar of Vizianagaram was the captain of the team, he scored a valiant 81 to deny the hosts an innings victory. Nayudu was hit by England’s captain Gubby Allen hit Nayudu below his heart.After dropping his bat, he made a quick, successful attempt to continue batting and hooked the next ball to the fence. His 81 denied England an innings victory and it was his highest Test score. Sadly, this was to be Nayudu’s final test for India, at the age of 41. However, CK wouldn’t exit cricket until much later.
He continued his cricket career for six different decades (1910s to 1960s). He made his last first-class appearance at his 62 years of age in the Ranji Trophy back in 1956-57 where he scored 52 in his last innings of his career for Uttar Pradesh.
This legendary captain of India died on November 14, 1967, at Indore.

Special thanks to Sanjeev Sathe, who is an avid cricket fan and a dear friend of ours for contributing this wonderful article.